Medical service of the Finnish armed forces in the winter: paper in the care of casualties (1948)


[Music] [Narrator:] For evacuation of the wounded, sleds are used with bipartite skids. A boxlike body, made of wood and cardboard, is erected on them. [Narrator:] Every sled is equipped with a stretcher. [Narrator:] The stretcher is provided with a woolen blanket, paper blankets, and evacuation paper sacks. [Music] [Narrator:] The sleds are driven this way to the sled-loading place, which is located immediately behind the front line. [Music] [Narrator:] For rescue of the wounded, and for transport from the front line to the sled-loading place, canoe-like sleds are used. [Music] [Explosions, machine-gun fire, and dramatic music] [Narrator:] While one medical corpsman applies the first dressing, the other one prepares the evacuation. He puts an under-blanket of several layers of kraft paper on the bottom of the sled as a separating layer. and spreads over it the evacuation sack made of kraft paper. [Music] [Narrator:] Around the evacuation sack, a layer of tar paper is fastened to increase the insulating effect. [Music] [Narrator:] The hood protects the head against freezing. [Music] [Narrator:] At the sled-loading place, the casualty is transferred to a horse-drawn sled prior to his evacuation. [Music] [Narrator:] As additional protection during the evacuation to the aid station, one or several blankets of crepe paper are used. [Music] [Shells detonate, followed by lively music] [Music] [Narrator:] A paper bag made of kraft paper protects the wounded arm. The bandage of soft crepe paper primarily intended for dressing purposes can also be used in this instance as a sling. [Music] [Narrator:] [Inaudible] is immediately treated by rubbing with snow. The moist skin is then rubbed dry. [Narrator:] When the canoe-shaped sleds are not available in sufficient number for the evacuation of the wounded, the medical corpsman quickly construct auxiliary stretchers by the use of a kraft paper sheet and the wounded man’s own skis. [Narrator:] The medical corpsmen fasten their own ski sticks to the stretcher in order to have both hands free. [Narrator:] In addition to the serious casualties, one or two of the minor wounded are evacuated in the sled. The aid station, with a squad for medical service, is located a few miles behind the front line. [Narrator:] The entrance leads through a windbreak into the interior of the medical service tent, which is heated by two tent stoves. A stretcher placed on two wooden blocks is set up as an operating table. A lamp with an incandescent mantle takes care of the lighting. The drinking water is kept in a folding water sack made of rubberized material which is suspended on three poles. [Narrator:] The medical officer places a firm parchment-like crepe paper underneath the instruments. The paper has been boiled to sterilize it. This sulfide-treated paper can be boiled twenty-one times without tearing. Blood-stained or soiled pieces can be washed, dried, and used again. [Narrator:] In the case of plaster casts, the medical officer uses a warming dressing made of several layers of crepe paper quilted together and hemmed. [Narrator:] A crepe paper cover is rolled around the dressing to prevent bleeding through the bandage, and resultant freezing of the wound. [A medic thoroughly bandages the leg of a wounded patient with layers of crepe paper.] [Narrator:] The blood-weakened casualty is carefully protected against any possible danger of freezing. Two or three bags keep the injured leg warm. In case of a more distant evacuation, in place of the evacuation protection sack, a sleeping bag is taken, consisting of several layers of crepe paper. This will increase the warmth on account of the insulating effect of the air space between the paper layers. [A hood is also placed on the wounded man’s head.] [More blankets are wrapped around the man’s body to protect him from the cold.] [Narrator:] If many stretchers are to be used, the kraft paper sheets and a few thin poles can be most useful in the rapid construction of temporary stretchers and beds. The weight resistance of the kraft paper sheet is two-hundred kilograms. That is four-hundred and forty pounds. In order to prevent the danger of freezing during evacuation to the distant hospital, some hot water or hot sand-filled bottles are put into the sleeping bags. [The stretcher is once again loaded into the back of the horse-drawn sled to be transferred to a medical facility further away.] [The sleds are seen traveling up a slight hill and disappearing in the distance.] [The End PMF 5106 MCMXLVIII]

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